PGD and PGS
PGD or Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis is a process where the embryo which is created through IVF is checked with any abnormal genetic defect or chromosomal defect before being implanted into the uterus. It is the best example of prevention is better than cure. If you are aware of a continued genetic defect in the family and would not want that to pass it on to your off-spring, nothing better than PGD.
PGD offers the couple at risk to choose from the embryos to transfer based on their genetic and chromosomal status. The ultimate goal of PGD is to screen out the abnormal embryos and pass on the healthy embryos which only results in producing disease free babies. PGD can identify presence of chromosomal translocations which is the rearrangements of parts of chromosomes and single gene
PGS or Pre-implantation screening is a process used to find out the viable embryo which has the normal number of chromosomes and which most likely should be implanted into the uterus. Chromosome is a pack of genes and a normal embryo will have 46 chromosomes, 23 from sperms and 23 from the egg. The embryo formed in this case is a Euploid embryo. An abnormal embryo also called as Aneuploid embryo however will have an extra or a missing chromosome. For a successful pregnancy and a healthy baby a normal set of chromosome is utmost important. If an abnormal embryo plants itself in the uterus it will either end up as a miscarriage or may result in a child with mental or physical disabilities. For e.g. Down’s syndrome can occur when there is an extra copy of chromosome.
Benefits of PGD and PGS:
Help detects genetic defects and chromosomal abnormalities before implantation of embryo in the uterus.
Identify unhealthy and abnormal embryos and prevent them from entering the uterus for implantation. Decrease the chances of passing on hereditary genetic diseases from parents to off springs.
Who is the right candidate for PGD and/or PGS:
A couple having a baby with some genetic defect and does not want to repeat the same with the second child.
In a family where there has been a history of chromosomal abnormalities.
In case of previous terminated pregnancy due to genetic abnormality a couple prefers to go in for a PGD or PGS.